The deepest problems facing society and humankind require not just refining and enhancing existing knowledge, but the development of fundamental new ideas. Evidence from the past and present abounds. Every aspect of our existence now has been enormously impacted by theoretical endeavours—from the quantum understanding of atoms and chemistry to the musings of Alan Turing as he developed the conceptual basis of modern computing and artificial intelligence. Indeed, the vast majority of the major transformations which have led to our prosperous modern society originate from, or were supported by, fundamental research which at the time of discovery seemed to have no immediate impact. We see a need to 1. ensure people have a licence to engage in curiosity driven research, 2. support interactions between fundamental and applied researchers, and 3. increase the awareness of government and society of the importance of fundamental research.